COVID-19

From Biopedia.kr

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2,[7] a virus closely related to the SARS virus.[8][9][10] The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak.[11][12] It is primarily spread between people by small droplets from infected individuals when they breathe or cough.[13][14] Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days.[15][16] Hand washing, maintaining distance from people who are coughing, and not touching one's face is recommended to prevent the disease.[17] It is recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a bent elbow when coughing.[18]

People may have few symptoms or develop fever, cough, and shortness of breath.[19][20][6] Cases can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure.[11][12] There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care, and experimental measures.[21] The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%.[22][23]

The World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend those who suspect that they are carrying the virus wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than directly visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection. Masks are not recommended for the general public.[24][25] The WHO has declared the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).[26][27] As of 19 February 2020, only Mainland China was listed as an area with known ongoing community spread of the disease.

 

Signs and symptoms

Those infected may either be asymptomatic or develop symptoms, including fever, cough or shortness of breath.[19][20][6] Diarrhea or upper respiratory symptoms (e.g. sneezing, runny nose, sore throat) are less frequent.[29] Cases can progress to pneumoniamulti-organ failure, and death.[11][12]

The incubation period ranges from 1 to 14 days with an estimated median incubation period of 5 to 6 days according to the World Health Organization.[30][31] A study found rare cases where the incubation period was as long as 24 days.[32]

Cause

Scanning electron microscope image of SARS-CoV-2 (yellow)

Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

The disease is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).[9] The virus is thought to have an animal origin.[33]

It is primarily spread between people via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes.[34]

An epidemiological study of the first 72,314 cases released by the Chinese government suggested that there may have been a "continuous common source" of the outbreak in December 2019, which would imply that several animal to human zoonotic events occurred at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. According to this theory, the primary source of infection became human-to-human transmission in early January 2020.[35]

Diagnosis

CDC laboratory test kit for COVID-19[36]

The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.[37][38] Testing uses real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).[39] The test can be done on respiratory or blood samples.[40] Results are generally available within a few hours to days.[41][42] Chinese scientists were able to isolate a strain of the coronavirus and publish the genetic sequence so that laboratories across the world could independently develop PCR tests to detect infection by the virus.[11][43][44][45]COVID 19 testing can also be done with nucleic acid-based tests and antibody test kits.[46]

Diagnostic guidelines released by Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University suggested methods for detecting infections based upon clinical features and epidemiological risk. These involved identifying patients who had at least two of the following symptoms in addition to a history of travel to Wuhan or contact with other infected patients: fever, imaging features of pneumonia, normal or reduced white blood cell count, or reduced lymphocyte count.[47]

Prevention

Global health organisations have published preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection. Recommendations are similar to those published for other coronaviruses: frequent washing of hands with soap and water; not touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands; and practicing good respiratory hygiene.[48][49]

The use of masks by healthy members of the public is not recommended outside of China.[50][51][52]

To prevent transmission, the CDC recommends that infected individuals stay at home except to get medical care; call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider; wear a facemask (especially in public); cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue; regularly wash hands with soap and water; and avoid sharing personal household items.[53]

No vaccine currently exists against SARS-CoV-2.[54]

Management

There are no specific antiviral medications approved for this disease. Symptoms are managed with supportive care.[55] Both the WHO and Chinese National Health Commission have published detailed treatment recommendations for hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when a SARS-CoV-2 infection is suspected.[56][57] The WHO also recommended volunteers take part in randomized controlled trials for testing the effectiveness and safety of potential treatments.[58]

Bruce Aylward, an assistant director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), has stated "there is only one drug right now that we think may have real efficacy and that's remdesivir." Clinical trials for this drug are in progress, and results could be available within weeks of February 24.[59]

The Beijing branch of China's National Health Commission suggested the use of lopinavir/ritonavir as part of treatment plans in the absence of an approved drug for this indication.[60] The lopinavir/ritonavir combination and interferon can now be claimed for via health insurance in some countries.[61]

Chloroquine is being trialed in China and preliminary results seem quite positive. It will be included in their next version of treatment guidelines.[62]

Psychological

Infected individuals may experience distress from quarantine, travel restrictions, side effects of treatment, or fear of the infection itself. To address these concerns, the National Health Commission of China published a national guideline for psychological crisis intervention on 27 January 2020.[63][64]

Alternative medicine

See also: Misinformation related to the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak § Vaccine and treatment

Chinese health authorities recommend the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in addition to standard medical supportive care to prevent or treat the disease. On 22 January, National Health Commission put TCM into the third issue of the COVID diagnostic and treatment plan.[65] On 2 February, Wuhan officials ordered all patients to be put on a specific TCM treatment.[66][67] On 14 February, Wuhan opened a TCM-oriented temporary hospital.[68] The efficacy and safety of TCM has not been established in coronavirus infections.[69][70]

Prognosis

According to WHO, based on analysis of 44,000 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei province, around 80% of patients only have a mild form of the disease, 14% developed more severe disease such as pneumonia, 5% have critical disease, and 2% of cases are fatal.[71] Among those who died initially, many had preexisting conditions, including hypertensiondiabetes, or cardiovascular disease,[72] and the median time from initial symptoms to death was 14 days (range 6-41 days).[73]

Epidemiology

Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak

Overall mortality and morbidity rates due to infection are not well established; while the case fatality rate changes over time in the current outbreak, the proportion of infections that progress to diagnosable disease remains unclear.[74][75] However, preliminary research has yielded case fatality rate numbers between 2% and 3%;[76] in January 2020 the WHO suggested that the case fatality rate was approximately 3%,[77] and 2% in February 2020 in Hubei.[78] An unreviewed preprint study by Imperial College London among 55 fatal cases noted that early estimates of mortality may be too high as asymptomatic infections are missed. They estimated a mean infection fatality ratio (the mortality among infected) ranging from 0.8% when including asymptomatic carriers to 18% when including only symptomatic cases from Hubei province.[79]

Research

Vaccine

Many organizations are using published genomes to develop possible vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.[80][81] Bodies developing vaccines include the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention,[82][83] the University of Hong Kong,[84] and Shanghai East Hospital.[84] Three vaccine projects are being supported by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), including projects by the biotechnology companies Moderna and Inovio Pharmaceuticals and another by the University of Queensland.[85] The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) is cooperating with Moderna to create an RNA vaccine matching a spike of the coronavirus surface, and intends to start human trials by May 2020.[80] Inovio Pharmaceuticals is developing a DNA-based vaccination and collaborating with a Chinese firm, hoping to perform human trials in the summer of 2020.[86] In Australia, the University of Queensland is investigating the potential of a molecular clamp vaccine that would genetically modify viral proteins in order to stimulate an immune reaction.[85] In Canada, the International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, are working on a vaccine,[87] aiming to start animal testing in March 2020 and human testing in 2021.[87]

In January 2020, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies began work on developing a vaccine, utilizing the same technologies used to make its experimental Ebola vaccine.[88] In the following month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesBiomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) announced that it would collaborate with Janssen and, later, Sanofi Pasteur to develop a vaccine.[89][90] Sanofi has previously worked on a vaccine for SARS and it stated to expect to have a vaccine candidate within six months that could be ready to test in people within a year to 18 months.[89]

Antiviral

No drug has yet been approved to treat coronavirus infections in humans.[91] Research into potential treatments for the disease was initiated in January 2020, and several antiviral drugs are already in clinical trials.[80][81] Although completely new drugs may take until 2021 to develop,[92] several of the drugs being tested are already approved for other antiviral indications, or are already in advanced testing.[91]

Antivirals being tested include chloroquine;[93] darunavir;[94] galidesivir;[91] interferon beta;[95][better source needed] the lopinavir/ritonavir combination;[96][81] the RNA polymerase inhibitor remdesivir;[97][98][95] and triazavirin.[99][better source needed] Arbidol and Darunavir were proposed by the National Health Commission.[100][better source needed]

Preliminary results from a multicentric trial, announced in a press conference and described by Jianjun, Zhenxue and Xu, suggested that chloroquine is effective and safe in treating COVID-19 associated pneumonia, "improving lung imaging findings, promoting a virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease course".[101]

Antibiotics

Terminology

The World Health Organization announced on 11 February 2020 that "COVID-19" will be the official name of the disease. World Health Organization chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said "co" stands for "corona", "vi" for "virus" and "d" for "disease", while "19" was for the year, as the outbreak was first identified on 31 December 2019. Tedros said the name had been chosen to avoid references to a specific geographical location (i.e. China), animal species, or group of people in line with international recommendations for naming aimed at preventing stigmatization.[102][103]

See also

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Diseases of the respiratory system (J460–519)